In this case consideration has to be made on all factors that affect a consumer buying or not buying a product. This will help a business look for ways to better the product and meet the consumers expectations and needs.
This study examines how consumer information processing affects consumers’ perception of risk prior to purchase. In particular, this research focuses on pre-purchase information such as brand, word-of-mouth, and customized information. The results show that customized information and word-of-mouth communication influence consumers more than do other types of information from online auctions. Consumers rely on these two factors because they are based on consumer experience and relevant to product purchase. Nevertheless, brand also has a significant effect upon consumer perceived risk. Pre-purchase information processing is directly related to reducing consumers’ risk perception. In particular, information processing associated with product performance plays a crucial role in reducing consumers’ perceived risk in online transactions. The results offer insights to e-marketers and e-marketing researchers about the role of pre-purchase information in management and e-commerce.
A business fails when they supply products and they are rejected by the consumer because they don’t meet the quality standards. This means taking them back and a lot of money is wasted in the process of correcting the defects on the product or producing new ones.
Consumer risk or consumer’s risk is a potent risk that can be found in all consumer-oriented commodities or product that the commodities might fail to meet the standards of quality. It might also pass undetected through the manufacture’s system of quality control and enter the marketplace for consumers. It is the risk that a consumer will recognize as a lot of inferior quality in comparison with the Limiting Quality Level.
Consumer’s risk creates ground for the consumer to invite superfluous costs for the reason that they will have to send back the product or have it mended. Six sigma with its processes aim to deter such risk involved. In other words, consumer’s risk may be defined as the risk that an investigation can not recognize a product that is incapable of meeting the reliability prerequisites. There are all the chances that a number of products are found to be faulty or of inadequate quality when delivered to the consumer. From the consumer’s point of view, the risk or loss is maximum if inferior product is accepted. So, to overcome this hassle, manufacturers adopt policies and process. Consequently, it is desired by most of the consumer to have such risk minimized.
Let us take for granted that a consumer receives a delivery of a product lot from a producer. Then, a sample of such parts will be taken and the number of imperfect items will be counted. After such counting, if it is found that the number of faulty items is lesser then the fine one, the entire lot will be received. But, if is found that the number of defective items is high in number; the entire lot will not be accepted because of quality. It is essential to take into consideration the probabilities of flawed decision and the best way is sampling. If a good-quality lot is mistakenly rejected, it emerges a problem for the producer and the possibility of such erroneous decision is called producer’s risk. Alternatively, if a poor-quality lot is wrongly accepted, it creates a problem for the purchaser or consumer; such error is called the Consumer’s Risk.
In order to understand both the producer’s risk and the consumer’s risk, it is vital to presuppose that a lot carries some identified percentage of faulty items and works out the possibility of taken for granted the lot for a specified sampling plan. While on changing the assumed proportion of defective items in a lot, it is possible to estimate numerous sampling plans and a sampling plan can be preferred, such as, the risks of both the producer’s and the consumer’s are practically low.
In orientation to sampling plans, consumer’s risk, (Pc), may be regarded as the possibility that a lot of faulty goods sent to the producer lot will be accepted. Bad or faulty lots are those that fail a LASP, (Lot acceptance sampling plan).
All these indicate that the chance of a product which is considered inadequate to a customer could only be accepted by inspection. Great engineers are always striving to maintain the ‘Consumer’s Risk’ as minimum as possible, taking into consideration the necessities of users in regard to each precise point. The consumer’s risk of a sampling plan can be calculated in the following ways:
- The first step is to plot the OC curve for the sampling plan that is required to be examined.
- Secondly, it is essential to determine the amount of defect that the consumer wants to discard. This point should be interpreted as the point where the quality lacks to that level where the consumer would refuse it for an extended period of time.
- Lastly, determine the value on an OC curve scale, and then make use of the curve to find out the possibility of approval. The process will clear up the risk of getting rejected under conditions as assumed above in the second phase.
Consumer’s risk can be evaluated without plotting the OC curve, and almost many people are usually paying attention to the whole area circling to the percent defective. For this reason, there is a positive side to have a finished OC curve at the beginning.
A minimal amount of Consumer’s Risk, about 10%, does not imply that the consumer would have the minimal amount that is of 10% possibility of getting a product rejected. The six sigma aims to develop and set out particularly high objectives, collection of data, and investigating results or outcomes to lessen the possibility of defects in products and services. By calculating the extent of defects that take place in a process, great practitioners of six sigma can frame out the formula to eliminate them.
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